How to cultivate vanilla?

I. Preparation before planting

1. Nursery pots

It is recommended to use seedlings or nursery pots for nursery. Do not broadcast directly on the ground. Direct sowing in the ground, the soil spread more pests and diseases, the ground temperature is lower, moisture and humidity are not easy to control, affect the germination rate. Cave saplings also facilitate statistics of germination rates.

2. Nursery substrate

The nursery substrate requires soil looseness, good air permeability, water and fertilizer, clean and disease-free, and good fertility. The commonly used substrates are peat soil, coco peat, perlite, vermiculite, and are generally used in a mixture. For example, peat 85% + perlite 10% + vermiculite 5%. The peat should not be too fine, the diameter of the perlite particles is 3-4 mm, and the diameter of the meteorite particles is 3-5 mm.

3. Wash basin

The matrix is ​​mixed and the pots are installed. The matrix does not need to be compacted during the potting process, and the leveling can be done gently, otherwise the physical properties of the matrix will be changed, and the permeability of the matrix will be reduced.

4. Watering

The bottom water is immersed with a fine spray nozzle. The size of the water droplets is better to not impact the soil surface and keep the soil surface flat. After watering, use a fungicide to water again. The commonly used agent is chlorothalonil.

5. Soaking

Appropriate soaking can promote germination and increase germination. The seed coat can be soaked with cold water, and the seed coat can be soaked with warm water or hot water. The fine seeds can be soaked. For example, sage soaking overnight can increase the germination rate and make germination faster.

Second, sowing

1. Sowing density

The hole pot sowing can be based on the actual situation of sowing one or more grains per hole. Nursery pots are planted, and common varieties can broadcast 1-2 thousand seeds per square meter. First divide the seeds evenly into several portions according to the area of ​​the sowing and nursery pots, one for each pot.

2. sowing

Larger seeds can be evenly spread on the substrate or drilled. Smaller seeds such as thyme and jasmine can be sowed in clean sand and then sowed. Particularly large seeds such as sage can be ordered on-demand.

3. Sowing depth and casing

The depth of sowing is determined by the size of the seed and the light requirement of the seed germination. The sowing depth of a typical seed is 2-3 times the diameter of the seed. Some varieties germinate need light, do not need to cover the substrate, broadcast directly on the soil surface; some varieties need to be slightly covered; some seed coverage should be slightly thicker, broadcast deeper. The recommended covering material is rough vermiculite, which has good water retention and breathability.

4. Water spray

After sowing or after covering, spray the water again with a fine mist sprayer and drench it so that the seeds are in full contact with the substrate and the covering material.

5. cover

Covering the sowing pots with glass, plastic film or plastic film can maintain the air humidity, and in the winter, it can also heat and warm. Can not cover the film in summer, cover film can not be sealed, both sides must be ventilated.

6. Shade

If sowing in summer, be sure to shade, otherwise the light is too strong and the water evaporates vigorously, which will affect the seed germination.

III. Management after sowing

1. temperature

According to the requirements of the specific varieties given the appropriate temperature, most of the seed germination temperature between 20-25 °C. Temperatures that are too high and too low will directly affect the germination rate of the seeds.

2. humidity

Water management after sowing is critical. When the soil temperature in winter is low at night, the water loss will be less. Therefore, there is no need for water supply or less water supply at the seedling stage. If the soil temperature is high, spray water shall be applied according to the actual needs at the seedling stage. In the summer, when the seedlings are growing, the water evaporates quickly and must be replenished at any time according to the actual situation. If the seeds are very fine, in order to prevent the water from scouring, the water can be replenished by dipping.

3. illumination

In addition to the darkness required for individual cultivars to germinate, most seeds are conducive to germination under light conditions. The seed must receive light after germination, otherwise it will make the seedlings grow.

4. Remove the cover

After the seeds germinate, cover the area in time. 60%-70% of the seeds should be peeled off after the cotyledons are unfolded to avoid seedling growth. At the same time, the humidity of the substrate still needs to be maintained, so that the cotyledons of the ungerminated parts of the seed successfully protrude from the seed shell.

5. transplant

When the seedlings are grown to be suitable for transplantation, the seedlings must be temporarily planted or planted, otherwise the seedlings will be prolonged and production delays will be caused. The time for all kinds of seedling transplants varies, depending on the actual situation.

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