Selection of seed-retaining techniques for detoxification of garlic

Since the introduction of detoxification garlic, the planting area has been continuously expanding, and all garlic production areas in the country have been planted. Jiaxiang County introduced fruit from the Vegetable Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 1992 and conducted experiments, demonstrations, and promotion, and achieved good results. According to the planting situation of the county for more than 10 years, it is proved that the potential for increasing yield is greater. The average output of garlic is increased by more than 50%, the output of garlic sprouts is increased by 1.1-1.8 times, and the proportion of garlic heads is increased by 3-4 times. However, it is difficult to solve the problem of maintaining planting disease in successive years in Datian production. If no corresponding technical protection measures are taken, the planting period will be shortened. Some plots can be infected with virus disease in the same year. The rate of diseased plants is 1%-3%. Individuals with severe disease incidence reach 5%. The second year is as high as 30%-40%, and the heaviest in the third year can reach 80%. the above. If corresponding technical measures are taken, the use time can reach 8-10a or longer. The specific technical measures are as follows:

First, choose a plot. First of all, choose not to plant onion crops, loose loam or sandy loam. The economic output of garlic is mainly underground bulbs. The soil must have good air permeability to ensure the normal growth of garlic bulbs during the expansion period. The second is to select land plots with high topography and good irrigation and drainage. The garlic needs large amount of water in the middle and later stages of growth, generally pouring water once every 4-6 days to keep the surface moist. The third is to choose a plot that is farther away from other onion and garlic crops. The spacing should not be less than 300m. It is also possible to choose a plot with high stalk crop isolation in the middle to reduce the chance of infection. The fourth is to choose the land that is far from the ditch, road and canal. Because these sites have more weeds and more pests, they can easily spread viral diseases. If there are no other plots to choose from, herbicides or insecticides and pesticides that prevent viral diseases should be sprayed on these sites. Planted detoxified garlic plots should also be sprayed with herbicides, and then cover the film.

Second, set up insect nets. Setting up insect nets is a more effective technical measure for preventing and treating garlic virus disease. Insect nets can be used for small-scale replanting farms, and conditional Daejeon can also use insect-repellent nets, but the cost is relatively high and can be determined according to circumstances.

The pests that transmit viral diseases mainly include aphids, whitefly, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and thrips. According to our observations for many years, Puma is the main insect pest in the spread of garlic virus disease. The effect of pesticides in preventing and controlling this pest is not ideal, and the use of insect-repellent nets is ideal.

Insect nets can use 80,100 mesh nylon nets, supported by steel racks. The steel frame can be made of steel bars with a diameter of 10-12cm and a length of 6m to form a ridge-shaped rack with a ridge height of 1.2-1.5 and a width of 3m. The distance between the rack and the rack is 1.5m. Rebar is inserted 50cm deep underground. The top of the vertical and then use a thin wire to fix the same type of steel, so as not to smash the net shed in winter. The net shed can also be removed in winter, and the garlic can be picked up again before the Spring Festival. The length of the net shed should not be too long, generally 20-30m. The nylon net should be fixed on the steel frame to avoid wind blowing. In order to reduce costs, bamboo-wood frame supports can also be used. For convenience, garlic can be planted first.

Third, choose to leave garlic. Daejeon produces a large number of planting garlic, which is generally about 667m2 with about 150kg of seed. It is difficult to meet the production needs of purchasing garlic every year and relying on scientific research units to provide a large number of virus-free varieties of garlic. Therefore, garlic farmers are required to retain garlic every year. The methods are as follows: (1) spraying pesticides in time; (2) removing diseased plants in time. Garlic has the opportunity to be susceptible throughout the growing season. It is necessary to observe the field frequently and find that the susceptible plants are removed in a timely manner, put in a pre-prepared plastic bag, bring out the field for destruction, and wash hands immediately after the operation is finished to avoid human transmission of virus disease. .

The main symptoms of garlic virus disease: (1) There are yellow, white spots or streaks on the leaves; (2) The tips of the leaves are severely dry; (3) The leaves are twisted together into an oxtail and cannot be convulsed normally; (4) The plants are obviously dwarfed and die prematurely.

Fourth, the use of garlic to breed garlic. Sky garlic is an aerial bulb on top of garlic sprouts. It is a more economical and effective method to use the garlic for breeding garlic. It can be used in the detoxification of garlic planted in Daejeon. The thick and disease-free garlic bulbs can be picked and left to end with garlic. After being fully matured, they are picked, dried and then placed in mesh bags for storage. stand-by. When the big garlic seeds are sown at the time of sowing, the seeds are sowed in the trenches and the depth is 2cm. Garlic breeding garlic can shorten the seed production period, and generally can be used for field planting for 2-3a. Large grains of garlic can be divided in the second year, compared with stem tissue culture can shorten the time of 3-4a for field.

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