How to plant a good autumn cabbage

Autumn cabbage is the main bulk vegetable species for winter storage in northern China. It has a large storage capacity, a wide range, and a long period of consumption. Therefore, it is very good for autumn cabbage to grow and plant vegetables in the winter market in the region. important.
1. Variety Selection Qiubao cabbage cultivation generally uses mid-to-late-maturing varieties with resistance to disease, good nodulation, resistance to storage, and fertility of 85-110 days, such as Beijing Xin No. 1, Beijing Xin No. 2, Beijing Xin No. 3, and Beijing. New No.4, Beijing New No.5, Shandong No.4, Qingza No.5, Lubai No.1, Taiyuan No.2, and Tianjin Qingma Leaf.
Second, soil cultivation
1. The roots of Chinese cabbage were mainly distributed in the shallow soil layer, with well-developed parallel lateral roots and reticular rooting, while the deep soil roots were underdeveloped. In order to promote the development of the root system in the shallow soil and increase the distribution of the deep soil roots as much as possible, the soil should be plowed. For plots prepared for Chinese cabbage, it is best to deep-flip after harvest in the autumn of the previous year, and apply a lot of farmyard manure, use winter frozen to improve soil physical properties, and conduct nutrient decomposition to cultivate fertility. As for the question of whether cultivated land is harvested after harvesting, it depends on the flexibility of processing time. If spring crops can be harvested earlier, such as zucchini, garlic, cabbage, and wheat, they will have been harvested more than one month before sowing, and they can be ploughed immediately once they are harvested. The depth is about 20 cm. If the spring eel is a crop of tomato, eggplant, cucumber, and legume, the ladle is lagging behind and sowed only a few days before sowing the cabbage. At this time, do not plow deeply so as not to overfill the soil after heavy rain, which will delay the timing. Very late crops are pulled up, because time is tight and they can also be planted directly on ridges. This should be handled flexibly. The use of no-deep ploughing soil conditioners can solve the above problems. When not in agriculture, they can implement less no-tillage and deep plowing.
Before planting Chinese cabbage, it is also very important to level the land. If the ground is uneven and the water is uneven, the plants cannot grow in unison. If water is not poured in high places, it will cause virus disease at the seedling stage, and it will also cause trees to be thrown off due to insufficient watering. This will result in poor balling; at low points, because there is often water accumulation, the seedlings will not grow or grow very slowly. It will also cause soft rot and black rot in the ball stage. Therefore, we must not act rashly to level land.
2. Shiji Chinese cabbage grows for a long period of time and has a large amount of growth. It requires a large amount of fertilizers for farms that are long-lasting and can enhance soil fertility. In the north, there are “a thousand kilograms of mu produce, and ten thousand catties of mu.” Of course, if the fertilizer is of good quality, it can be applied less. In the large-scale application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers, attention should be paid to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Generally, 25-30 kg of superphosphate and 100 kg of grass ash are applied per mu. After the basal fertilizer is applied, the cultivator can be used to mix the basal fertilizer with the soil evenly.
3. You can do it after doing the land leveling. According to the specific conditions of the local soil to determine pod type. In areas with good soil conditions, high ridges (ridges) should be used. The use of stilts can save labor and improve labor efficiency. Sorghum irrigation is convenient, drainage is convenient, ventilation and light transmission between the lines are good, and it can reduce the occurrence of frost and soft rot in Chinese cabbage. Generally, the height of sorghum is 56-60 cm and the height of sorghum is 30-40 cm.
Third, the yield of reasonably cultivated Chinese cabbage is determined by the weight of each plant and the number of groups. In other words, on the unit area, it is necessary to grow enough plants and make each individual plant grow to a certain weight, so as to obtain high yield. Thin plants, although the weight of a single plant is high, but the total yield is not high; too close planting, although the number of plants is large, but the weight of a single plant is light, but also affect the yield and quality. Therefore, proper close planting is an important technical measure for increasing the yield of Chinese cabbage.
IV. Planting methods
1. There are two ways to broadcast and broadcast live broadcasts. Drilling is based on a predetermined spacing, open a shallow ditch about 1 cm deep, soak the water until the water seeps into the soil, spread the seeds evenly in the ditch, and then cover the soil. The hole sowing is to open 10-15cm long and 1cm deep shallow hole according to the predetermined line spacing. After pouring enough water, sow more than 10 grains in each small hole, then cover the soil. Generally about 100-150 grams per acre sowing seeds, seed sowing seeds about 50-100 grams.
2. Seedling transplanting Seedling transplanting is another main method of Chinese cabbage cultivation. In this way, it is possible to more rationally arrange the mouthwash and extend the harvest period of the Chinese cabbage beforehand, without delaying the growth of Chinese cabbage. Use a small amount of nursery to raise seedlings in advance, which greatly improves land utilization. At the same time, intensive seedling cultivation also facilitates seedling management, rationally arranging the labor force, and saving the amount of seed used. However, transplanting seedlings is more time-consuming and requires a slow seedling period after planting. This delays the growth of the plants, and the roots are easily injured when transplanted, which can lead to the occurrence of soft rot in the seedling stage.
In order to raise seedlings and transplant plants, we must first select the land with high topography, well-drained water, and fertile soil. The former has not been planted with a bed of cruciferous vegetables. Nursery areas should be sun-dried as soon as possible, so that the soil full sun and weathering. When growing seedlings, they should be made flat, with a width of 1-1.5 meters and a length of 10 meters. Each pod should be immersed in 150 kg of decomposed, high-quality farmyard fertilizer, mixed with 0.5 kg each of ammonium sulfate and superphosphate, and then the boring soil should be turned twice to mix the soil and fertilize the soil. In order to reduce the temperature and prevent rain, it is best to take a shed above the seedlings. Seedlings and seedlings are sown, and seeding methods are often used to spread the seeds evenly over the flat surface. Then cover the soil with 1-2 cm and smooth the covered fine soil. After planting, you should have three waters. Immediately after emergence, seedlings should be grown to prevent leggy. When the true leaf grows, the first seedlings can be planted, and the seedling distance is 6-7 cm. The second time the seedlings are carried out with 2-3 leaves, and a 6.7 cm per 6.7 cm seedling is planted for transplanting. Each acre of land area, about 30 meters 2 about the nursery. According to this standard, the area of ​​nursery pots required for the cultivated Chinese cabbage plots can be calculated. Since seedling transplanting requires a slow seedling process, the seedling seedlings should be planted 3-4 days earlier than direct seeding. It is better to use seedlings for nutrition and high survival rate for transplanting.
Transplanting seedlings should not be too large, seedlings are too large to survive. According to transplanting sooner or later, can be divided into two kinds of small seedling transplanting and seedling transplanting. The seedlings were transplanted, ie, the seedlings were not planted after emergence of the seedlings. When there were 2-3 true leaves, 3-4 plants were transplanted as a bundle. When the transplanting is started, the soil shall be dug and then transplanted to the production field according to the predetermined spacing. The depth of transplanting should be consistent with the level of the original bandits. Because the seedlings are small and the weather is hot during transplanting, they should be transplanted, watered, and watered immediately after planting a plot to ensure the survival of the seedlings. After transplanting to survive, the extra seedlings were between. The management method will be the same as that of live Chinese cabbage. Transplanting big seedlings is done by transplanting single plants when the Chinese cabbage has 5-6 leaves. The day before transplanting, water should be poured into the nursery seedlings and the seedlings should be raised the next day. When digging seedlings, each vegetable seedling should bring 6.7 cm of soil to reduce root damage. When planting, first dig a hole with a shovel in the planting pot according to the prescribed spacing, and then plant the seedlings in the hole, then cover the hole. Immediately after planting, you should pour enough water, and then pour a water every other day to help ease seedlings. When the soil is seen, the cultivator can loosen the soil. The management method of vegetable seedlings after they have grown and grows is the same as that of live cabbage.
V. Field Management
1. Saplings, Miao Miao, Dingmiao To prevent seedlings crowding, live plots and time seedlings. Usually 2-3 times, respectively, in the pull cross, 2-3 tablets in the leaves, 5-6 tablets when the middle leaves. When the seedlings are grown to 20-26 days, when they reach the stage of the clumps, the seedlings are set at a predetermined spacing. The plant spacing depends on the variety, water and fertilizer conditions, generally about 50 cm in medium-sized varieties, about 60 cm in large-sized varieties. Missing strains should be promptly filled. It is best to fill the seedlings with watering or raining, and take the extra seedlings to plant. Cabbage is generally not sowing because of delayed seedling growth. When thinning and setting seedlings, young and vigorously seedlings with the characteristics of this variety should be selected and removed as soon as possible.
2. The cultivator, earth-cultivation, and weeding should be carried out three times in conjunction with the seedlings, and they should be carried out after the second inter-seedling, the post-seedling and the middle of the rosette. The cultivator is based on the principle of "shallow, shallow, deep, and triple." The cultivation of high ridges should follow the principle of “deep sewers and shallow backs” and combine cultivators for weeding. The soil is cultivated in the ridges and ridges of the sloping earth, so as to facilitate the protection of the root system and the smoothness of the ditch, facilitating drainage and irrigation.
3. Water and fertilizer management (1) Water and fertilizer management water during germination is one of the indispensable conditions for seed germination. The Chinese cabbage seed germinates at a high temperature and is easy to get rid of as soon as possible. Therefore, care should be taken to prevent buds and buds from steaming. Especially in the dry years, in order to meet the requirements for seed unearthing and cooling, pay attention to watering and master the “three” Water Qimiao." "Three waters and seedlings" has accelerated the rate of emergence and prevented the occurrence of diseases, especially viral diseases. The so-called "three waters Qimiao" refers to the fall and winter cabbage on the day of sowing a water, top soil and water, out of a water. Of course, the "three waters" is not absolute, if you encounter rainy weather after the broadcast, you can do little or no pouring.
In order to promote the growth of seedlings, especially in the case of poor fertility, insufficient basal fertilizer, and insufficient growth period, a small amount of seed fertilizer should be applied to promote seedling development and enhance disease resistance. Generally, 5 to 7.5 kg of ammonium sulfate is applied per acre. Other fertilizers are also available, which can be increased or decreased according to the size of the fertilizer effect. Fertilizer should be sprinkled on the surface before sowing and mixed with the soil.
(2) Water and fertilizer management in seedling stage The growth of seedling stage is not large, and relatively less water and fertilizer are needed. However, due to the underdeveloped seedling root system, the ability to absorb water and fertilizer is weak, and at this time it is in the high temperature season. Therefore, it is necessary to supply enough water and nutrients in accordance with the climate change, and to encourage the establishment of the “five waters” in the drought year. The so-called "five-water establishment of trees" is based on the "three waters and seedlings," and the fourth and fifth water are poured after the seedlings and the seedlings, respectively. The frequency of watering at the seedling stage cannot be used mechanically. It should be determined according to the specific conditions of the climate and soil moisture conditions. In dry years, it may be necessary to pour 4-5 times of water again.
Due to the shallow root distribution during the seedling stage of Chinese cabbage, the basal fertilizer effect is slow, and the young root can not be used in time. Therefore, it should be combined with watering to raise the seedling fertilizer. The fertilizer amount is 7.5 kg of ammonium sulfate per acre. In addition, some weak seedlings should be applied to some chemical fertilizers to make it catch up with big seedlings. Fertilizer is best not applied to the soil surface, but should be buried in trenches to increase fertilizer efficiency. Fertilizer should be applied at a distance of 5 cm from the root to prevent watering. After fertilization, water should be applied immediately.
(3) Rosette stage water and fertilizer management Rosette stage is a period when a large number of Chinese cabbage roots occur and the growth of the leaf grows sharply. It is also the basic period for the formation of a huge leaf ball. Therefore, it is also a time when more water and fertilizer are needed. At this time, it is the epidemic of downy mildew. The occurrence of downy mildew requires two conditions of proper temperature and proper humidity. Although the temperature of the open ground cannot be controlled, the humidity can be solved by controlling the watering. Therefore, watering during the rosette period should be properly controlled so that the soil “see dry and wet”. In the middle of the rosette stage, a large amount of water can be poured, then deep cultivating (third cultivating), and then water controlling seedlings for 10-15 days. The above is a traditional practice. In recent years, downy mildew has been basically controlled due to improvements in cultivation techniques, such as the implementation of large and small lines and the improvement of disease prevention measures.
During the rosette period, 15-20 kg of ammonium sulfate can be applied per acre, and 1,000 kg of high-quality organic fertilizer can also be topdressed. Because the Chinese cabbage in the rosette stage has not been ridged, the top dressing should not be applied to the surface and should be buried to increase fertilizer efficiency.
4. Pest control
(1) Downy mildew: Use 75% chlorothalonil WP 500 times, 50% carbendazim WP 800 times, or 25% metalaxyl WP 800 times, 7d-10d1 Times, even spray three times, pay attention to alternate medication.
(2) Viral disease: In the seedling stage, 10% imidacloprid 1000 times solution or 3% acetamiprid 800 times solution is used to control aphids and migratory locusts in a timely manner, and the control of insect transmission insects can reduce the risk of virus diseases.
At the beginning of the disease, 20% of the virus is sprayed at A400 times, 7 days apart, and sprayed 3 times, or sprayed with 1.5% of the diseased lingzhi emulsion 400-500 times, sprayed 2 times every other day, 7 days-10 days. the 3rd time. It can effectively prevent viral diseases.
(3) Soft rot, dry heart, black rot, and bacterial keratoderma: 72% agricultural streptomycin soluble powder or neomycinsemycin 3000-4000 times spray, 7 days to 10 days, Even spray 2-3 times, use 30% DT3000 times, 75% chlorothalonil 500-600 times, 30% bacilli 600 times or sterile Wei 500-800 times alternating spray, every 7-10 Once a day, when the spraying is focused on the mildly infected plant and its surrounding plants, the petiole and rhizome near the surface of the soil are sprayed.
(4) Locusts and whiteflies: Control methods: Use 40% Dimethoate 1000-1500 times, or 10% imidacloprid 1000-2000 times, or 50% anti-Xiwei WP-4000- 8000 times liquid, spray once every 5-7 days, or alternate spray of 10% imidacloprid + 4.5% high-efficient chlorocyano 2500-3000 times spray, interval 7 days, continuous medication more than 3 times, can be concurrent treatment of whitefly, pay attention to spray leaf On the back, there is better control.
(5) Spodoptera exigua, Brassica oleracea, Pieris rapae, and Plutella xylostella: larvae hatching with 0.3% matrine 500-1000 times insecticide, or BT emulsion 1000-fold dilution (original drug 100 g/667 m2 ), Or Suppository EC 2500 times, or 1.5% methyl avermectin 2000-3000 times spray control.

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